Really Simple Syndication is a type of web feed. You can use RSS to keep track of news, blogs or your batches.
Application programming interface (API) is a set of communication protocols and tools for building software.
Representational State Transfer (REST) is a software architectural style that defines a set of constraints to be used for web services APIs.
A terminal (sometimes called a Console) is an application in which you can type and execute text based commands. In Blender you can use it to check the output of addons and errors.
The Python console is an editor in Blender (found under the Scripting column).
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an internet standard for sending emails. SMTP servers take care of sending emails through this protocol.